Mary Ellen Avery M.D.

first_imgDr. Mary Ellen Avery died on December 4, 2011 at the age of 84.  She was best known to the world for her ground breaking research on the cause of hyaline membrane disease (later called Respiratory Distress Syndrome), an illness that claimed the lives of an estimated 10,000 infants in the United States each year.  That discovery catapulted her to leadership positions in the United States and Canada and to the highest honors offered by national societies.Following her residency in pediatrics at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, she came to Boston in 1957 as a research fellow in neonatology with Dr. Clement Smith, Professor of Pediatrics at Harvard Medical School and with Dr. Jere Mead, a professor of physiology at the Harvard School of Public Health.  While carrying out a literature search she had come upon an article by Dr. John Clements who was studying the effect of war gases on the lung.  He had developed an instrument that measured surface tension in the lung.  When he suggested that surface tension is inversely correlated with surface area, she noted that the lungs of the sick premature infants she was caring for were collapsed and unable to retain air.  Returning to Boston from a visit with Clements in Maryland, she built a similar device to measure surface tension.  She found that aspirates from the lungs of these premature infants who died with hyaline membrane disease lacked the ability to lower surface tension and inferred the relevance of this observation to the clinical disease. Contrasting the lungs of these infants with healthy animals, she discerned that the former lacked the critical foamy substance, surfactant, that maintained the lungs in an expanded state.   Thus she determined that hyaline membrane disease was caused, in large measure, by a deficiency in surfactant due to immaturity of the lungs at birth. This work was published in a landmark paper in the American Journal of Diseases of Childhood in 1959.  She continued to work in the area and with others defined the timecourse of surfactant appearance during late gestation and the factors that could slow or accelerate its appearance in the fetal lung.  Building upon the observation that glucocorticoids administration in premature sheep led to normal respiration, she and Liggins in New Zealand established prenatal steroid administration as the standard of obstetric care when mothers risked delivering a baby at high risk of Hyaline Membrane Disease.  Avery’s surfactant work was finally translated into clinical practice by a Japanese pediatrician, Dr. Tetsuro Fujiwara, who developed a surfactant replacement made from the lungs of cows.  Avery encouraged Ross Laboratories to produce a clinically available surfactant modeled on the Japanese product.  Following the advent of the widespread use of surfactant therapy, by the year 2000 fewer than 1,000 prematures were dying yearly from this dreaded disease.Dr. Avery was born in Camden and raised in Moorestown, New Jersey.  She attended the Moorestown Friends School where an intense curiosity about biology and the human body were first evident.  But it was at Wheaton College in Norton, Massachusetts, majoring in Chemistry under her professor, friend and ultimately biographer, Bojan Jennings, that the fires were ignited and her great talent recognized.  Johns Hopkins Medical School admitted women and Harvard did not and she thus joined three other women in a class of 90.  Graduation was followed by an internship and residency at Johns Hopkins Hospital, only to be interrupted by tuberculosis, convalescence at the Trudeau Sanitarium in Saranac, New York, and an awakening of a lifelong interest in the lung.  She then came to Boston as a research fellow and her remarkable discovery at the very young age of 32.On returning to Johns Hopkins Hospital she became Pediatrician-in-Charge of the Newborn Nurseries and rose rapidly becoming the Eudowood Associate Professor of Pulmonary Disease of Children.  In 1969 she was called to be Professor and Chair of Pediatrics at McGill University and Physician-in-Chief at Montreal Children’s Hospital.  In Montreal, she initiated new programs in developmental pharmacology and neonatal circulatory physiology and developed an outstanding neonatology research group.  While at McGill, she also observed the new Canadian programs in health care.  Noting an opportunity to initiate new initiatives, she helped introduce genetics on a universal basis into health care in the form of the Quebec Network of Genetic Medicine.  Finally, she developed a strong medical interest in the Inuit Eskimo children in the Arctic Circle and travelled to the north on many occasions over her five years in Montreal.Harvard had tried to entice Dr. Avery to come to Boston to develop the program in neonatology, but after careful reflection she decided not to accept the invitation.  Harvard succeeded shortly thereafter when she became a candidate to replace Dr. Charles A. Janeway.  When she was selected in September 1973 by the search committee, she became the 7th Thomas Morgan Rotch Professor of Pediatrics and the first woman to lead a major clinical department at Harvard Medical School.  As Physician-in-Chief at Children’s Hospital, she was also the first woman to lead that department.Dr. Avery served as chairwoman from 1974 to 1985.  During that time she greatly strengthened the hospital’s capabilities in neonatology by establishing the Joint Program in Neonatology, led by Dr. William Taeusch, uniting the neonatal services at the Children’s, the Brigham and Women’s and the Beth Israel Hospitals.   She fostered the rapid growth of the Divisions of General Pediatrics, Pulmonary Medicine and Genetics and greatly augmented the department’s research and financial base.Over her ten years of leadership, the Department underwent spectacular growth reaching in 1984, 200 full time faculty, 100 part time faculty, 120 fellows and 68 pediatric house-officers.  The research budget increased three fold over the same period of time, from four million in 1974 to thirteen million in 1984, remarkably funding 2/3rds of all faculty salaries. Patient care volume showed a concomitant though less spectacular growth with admissions increasing from 7,800 in 1977 to 8,800 in 1984 and outpatient department visits increasing from 45,000 each year in 1975 to 67,000 in 1984.  The emergency department saw a steady growth as well from 31,000 in 1975 to 43,000 in 1984.In the area of undergraduate and graduate education Dr. Avery left a significant legacy.  Pediatrics became a much sought after specialty for Harvard Medical students with 8 to 10 students or 1/3 of a given class filling the internship positions at the Children’s Hospital.   The residency grew in size and in academic orientation.  Dr. Avery strongly encouraged residents with scientific interests to pursue the American Board of Pediatrics Special Alternative Research Pathway in pediatrics.  Eighty to 85% of a given senior class pursued fellowship training in pediatrics each year with her subspecialty of neonatology leading the list.  The number of women in the residency increased from 20% in 1974 to 40% in 1985.   A remarkably large number of national leaders in pediatrics came out of her residency classes including fourteen departmental chairs, two medical school deans, and two hospital presidents as well as a number of national leaders at the NIH, NICHD and the CDC.Mary Ellen Avery was an avid investigator.  She loved science and research.  She talked about science whenever there was an audience to listen.  She was fearless in asking questions for the sake of learning.  Her work with hyaline membrane disease, neonatology and neonatal intensive care defined her.  She was also at her core a pediatrician and neonatologist.  She loved clinical medicine and her patients and she set an example of dedicated and compassionate care.  Her innate exuberance, humor and zest for discovery was the basis of her greatness as a teacher.  She was fun to be around and attracted hordes of students, residents and fellows.  She also attracted untold numbers of women into pediatrics.  She took great pride in their achievements and strove to help them break their own glass ceilings, but insisted on all being part of a meritocracy.  Her trainees today fill positions of leadership throughout the U.S. and internationally.   Once asked what was most important in her professional life she answered: “the most important event, the discovery of surfactant deficiency; the most important thing, the people with whom I have worked.”Her awards were many including the E. Mead Johnson Award from the Academy of Pediatrics in 1969, the Chadwick Medal from the Massachusetts Thoracic Society in 1982, The Trudeau Medal from the American Lung Association in 1984, the Virginia Apgar Award from the Academy of Pediatrics in 1991, the National Medal of Science in 1991, the Philipson Prize in Pediatric Medicine from the Nobel Committee in 1998 and the most prestigious award in academic pediatrics, the Howland Medal, from the American Pediatric Society in 2005.  She was the recipient of 14 honorary degrees including degrees from her alma maters, Wheaton College and Johns Hopkins University as well as Radcliffe College.  Hers was a life of firsts: the first woman to be selected as President of the Society for Pediatric Research, among a very few women to be President of the American Pediatric Society and the first pediatrician to lead the American Association for the Advancement of Science.Most, however, will remember Dr. Avery as an immensely human, human being.  Images of her ability to connect abound – residents at their final senior dinner surrounding her as she explored with each their future careers or probing or critiquing a research presentation by a fellow or showing as much interest in the janitor who cleaned her office as those in the highest positions of authority.   People loved and enjoyed her company whether the conversation was professional or social.   Finally her loves ran deep, love of her institutions, Wheaton, Johns Hopkins and Harvard, affection and respect for her lifelong mentor, Clement Smith and love of her sister Jane, her brother-in-law Carl, and her nieces Sue and Jennifer and her nephew Bill.   The human qualities shown through like a clarion and galvanized her success:  strongly held beliefs, the highest professional standards, remarkable courage and a profound passion for her work.Over the library at Wheaton College is the inscription, “That they may have life and have it abundantly.”  Dr. Avery lived out her college motto to its fullest; most assuredly her life was abundantly lived.Respectfully Submitted,Frederick H. Lovejoy, Jr., M.D., ChairpersonJohn F. Crigler, Jr., M.D.Stella Kourembanas, M.D.Marie McCormack, M.D.Lynne M. Reid, M.D.Charles R. Scriver, M.D.H. William Taeusch, M.D.last_img read more

Gardai investigate suspicious approach to woman

first_imgGardai are investigating a suspicious approach to a woman in Ballybofey.The woman was out walking at Dreenan on Tuesday last when the incident occurred.The man pulled up alongside the woman in a blue hatchback style car and asked her for directions. However, the woman said she felt the incident was suspicious and reported the matter to Gardai.Gardai are asking anyone who may have been approached by a male in a similar incident in a similar car to Gardai in Letterkenny on 074-9167100.Gardai investigate suspicious approach to woman was last modified: June 11th, 2019 by Staff WriterShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)last_img read more

‘Patent herbal medicines’

first_img16 October 2007Health Minister Manto Tshabalala-Msimang has urged traditional medical practitioners to use intellectual property rights to protect traditional medicines and indigenous knowledge, while also encouraging an increase in research and development of such medicines.She was speaking last week at the Africa regional meeting on public health, innovation and intellectual property, which formed part of the World Health Organisation’s (WHO) initiative to develop a global strategy to enhance needs-driven, essential health research and development that is relevant to diseases that are disproportionately affecting developing countries.“The implementation of continental initiatives with focus on research and development of traditional medicine need to be enhanced,” she said. “It is therefore important to discuss issues relating to the protection of indigenous knowledge systems.”Tshabalala-Msimang told the audience, comprising representatives of 16 African countries and experts from various local and international organisations including the WHO, the it was vital for the continent to develop a common position on the matter since “the bulk of disease burden is in developing countries and Africa in particular”.The WHO estimates that between 70% and 80% of the populations of developing countries rely on traditional medicine.South Africa established the Medicinal Plant Incubator project in its Gauteng province in April this year, to protect its indigenous plants by ensuring that the they are grown in a nursery environment and sold on to traditional healers and not merely plucked from the wild in an uncontrolled manner.At that launch, Gauteng’s provincial agriculture minister Khabisi Mosunkutu said the project would ensure preservation, propagation and recording of various plant species, as well as informing the public about ethnobotany – the science that studies how plants are used in various cultures.This was a critical task considering local and international pressure arising from competing land use and sheer arrogance from some quarters, in relation to biodiversity, especially in the rapidly urbanising province.Mosunkutu at the time said that over 30 000 of South Africa’s plant species are said to utilised as medicine and about 350 of these are still commonly used and traded as medicinal plants. It is estimated that almost 20 000 tons of medicinal plants are used by at least 27-million consumers each year.“This places considerable strain on the wild populations from which these products are harvested,” he said.Source: BuaNewslast_img read more

Announcing the January Featured Geocacher of the Month

first_img SharePrint RelatedJanuary Featured Geocacher of the Month Nominees – Add Your CommentsJanuary 9, 2013In “Community”February Featured Geocacher of the Month Nominees – Add Your CommentsFebruary 13, 2013In “Community”Announcing the December Geocacher of the MonthFebruary 4, 2014In “Community” Congratulations to the Featured Geocacher of the Month, The WeaselThe decibel level from the global geocaching community rose to new heights during voting in January. Hundreds of geocachers commented to support of outstanding nominees from the United States and the United Kingdom. More than 800 comments were tallied for all the nominees.Each geocacher nominated offers the global geocaching community a unique example of a caring geocacher. All are truly winners, as we learned about these three gracious and giving geocachers. Thank you to all those who supported them. The nominees not chosen as featured Geocacher of the Month will receive a gift of appreciation from Geocaching.After tallying the comments and careful consideration, 2013 begins with The Weasel being named January’s Featured Geocacher of the Month!The Weasel is recognized for organizing Cache In Trash Out (CITO) events, helping guide local geocaching as a board member of the Iowa Geocacher Organization, and spreading the word about proper geocaching etiquette through conducting and assisting in over 50 geocaching 101, 201 and 301 classes and workshops throughout the State of Iowa and abroad.A geocacher who voted for The Weasel writes, “I heard my parents speak over and over again about caches put out by The Weasel, so I had to see for myself what was so good about them. On a few visits to see my parents we headed out to get a little caching in. Inevitably nearly every cache that I liked turned out to be placed by The Weasel. His caches are fun, unique, well placed, and well maintained. You can’t help but get excited about geocaching when you are working on one of his caches! And to know how much he cares about his community, the environment, and the awareness and promotion of geocaching through friendships and education”Featured Geocacher of the Month IconThe Weasel will receive a collector’s edition featured Geocacher of the Month Geocoin, along with a Geocacher of the Month hat and certificate acknowledging his contributions, signed by two of the founders of Geocaching.com. See a list of all the featured Geocachers of the Month here.If you know an outstanding geocacher who should be considered for the honor, send an email to [email protected] Every nomination must meet the following requirements:Your name, the name of your nominee, their usernameA picture of the nomineeDescription (200 or more words) explaining why he or she deserves to be the Geocacher of the MonthPlease inform your nominee that you’ve submitted them for the award.Nominations for the February Featured Geocacher of the Month must be received by the end of the day on Friday, February 8, 2013.Once we have received all of the nominations, we will choose three candidates and post them on the Geocaching blog. You will then get a chance to champion your favorite. Our goal is to involve the entire geocaching community in this process so we might learn from each other.Share with your Friends:Morelast_img read more

Delhi University student shot dead outside college

first_imgA second year degree student was shot dead by an unidentified person near her college in south Delhi on Tuesday morning, police said.The spot where the girl was killed by unidentified persons.Radhika Tanwar was attacked by an unidentified man near a foot-over-bridge outside Ramlal Anand College in Dhaula Kuan’s Shantiniketan area at around 10.20 am, a senior official said. The victim resided in Naraina area.”A man attacked her from behind. He pumped bullets into her. He fled the scene soon after the incident. Passersby took the girl in an autorickshaw to Ram Manohar Lohia hospital where she was declared brought dead,” the official said.The incident came on a day when the city was celebrating the International Women’s Day.The motive behind the incident is being investigated, a senior police official said, adding that they suspect the hand of a “jilted lover” in the murder.”We are investigating all angles. It could be a case of a jilted lover committing the murder. But we cannot say anything now as the investigations are at the initial stages,” the official said.”It appears that the girl was specifically targeted with an intention to kill her. There was no attempt to snatch her money or purse,” H G S Dhaliwal, Deputy Commissioner of Police (South), said.The attacker appeared to be known to the victim and was trailing her, he said, adding that the girl was shot at on her stomach.With PTi inputslast_img read more

Cricket will not forget Mansur Ali Khan Pataudi

first_imgFormer India captain Mansur Ali Khan Pataudi will be remembered for the touch of class which he brought to everything in life. An attacking batsman, fielder par excellence, astute captain and a true gentleman, he will be spoken of for his invaluable contributions long after his death.People talk of MS Dhoni as a bold captain.But Pataudi had, as early as 1968, instilled in the Indian team what it takes to win Test matches abroad. And even after losing an eye in a car accident, Pataudi fielded with aplomb.Unlike modern cricketers who don’t retire because of commercial reasons, he quit at his peak. Yet, he remained associated with the sport in various capacities, especially as the editor of Sportsworld, a well-known magazine.A regular at the capital’s Jaipur polo ground, ‘Tiger’ Pataudi couldn’t be missed on Sundays. His dress sense, famous hats and cigar were symbols of how he lived life, kingsize.last_img read more

2015 NTL Player Awards

first_imgCongratulations to the following players who were awarded Player of the Final and Player of the Series honours at the 2015 National Touch League.Men’s Elite EightQueensland Stingrays 5 defeated New South Wales Scorpions 2Player of the Final: Adam Pryde (Stingrays)Player of the Series: Sam Brisby (Scorpions)Women’s Elite EightQueensland Chiefs 6 defeated New South Wales Mets 4Player of the Final: Samantha Hopkin (Chiefs)Player of the Series: Samantha Hopkin (Chiefs)Mixed OpenSydney Rebels 6 defeated Brisbane City Cobras 4Players of the Final: Roy Prasad and Kirstie Wakely (Rebels)Women’s T LeagueHunter Western Hornets 3 defeated South Queensland Sharks 2Player of the Final: Jasmine Dillon (Hornets)Men’s T LeagueNorth Queensland Cyclones 15 defeated Central Queensland 5Player of the Final: Jason Norford (Cyclones)Men’s 30’sSouth Queensland Sharks 6 defeated Sydney Scorpions 5Player of the Final: Scott Prince (Sharks)Women’s 35’sHunter Western Hornets 3 defeated South Queensland Sharks 2Player of the Final: Jodi Dillon (Hornets)Men’s 40’sSydney Scorpions 6 defeated South Queensland Sharks 3Player of the Final: Darren Swain (Scorpions)Womens’s 40’sSydney Scorpions 7 defeated Western Tigers 2Player of the Final: Megan McGhie (Scorpions)Men’s 45’sSydney Scorpions 8 defeated South Queensland Sharks 4Player of the Final: David Cheung (Scorpions)Men’s 50’sSydney Scorpions 5 defeated South Queensland Sharks 4Player of the Final: Peter McDonald (Scorpions)Men’s 55’sNorth Queensland Cyclones 3 defeated Northern Eagles 2Player of the Final: Roly Warnock (Cyclones)Senior MixedSydney Scorpions 5 defeated Brisbane City Cobras 4Players of the Final: Brad Mitchell and Sarah Nash (Scorpions)Related LinksPlayer awardslast_img read more

10 months agoSpalletti satisfied with Inter Milan victory over Empoli

first_imgSpalletti satisfied with Inter Milan victory over Empoliby Carlos Volcano10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveInter Milan coach Luciano Spalletti was satisfied with victory over Empoli. Keita Balde Diao’s goal proved enough at the Stadio Castellani to continue their positive streak.“There are games that can start going the wrong way if you don’t take the right approach,” he told Sky Sport Italia.“We weren’t sharp in the first half and didn’t spark enough moves down the flanks. It was better after the break, when Empoli got tired and we were able to create problems.“It’s a fundamental victory and I’d say a fair one too. Once again, we wasted chances and lost the ball cheaply, something we cannot afford to do, as we risk on the counter. In games like this, Empoli can analyse a good performance, but for a side like Inter, the only thing that matters is the result.” About the authorCarlos VolcanoShare the loveHave your saylast_img read more

4-Star LB Roquan Smith Announces He’s Committed To Georgia

first_imgA general view of the Georgia Bulldogs football stadium.ATHENS, GA – SEPTEMBER 29: Fans of the Georgia Bulldogs watch play against the Mississippi Rebels at Sanford Stadium on September 29, 2007 in Athens, Georgia. Georgia won 45 – 17. (Photo by Al Messerschmidt/Getty Images)Roquan Smith, a four-star linebacker out of Montezuma, Ga., has committed to Georgia. The 6-foot-2, 205-pound prospect pledged to UCLA on National Signing Day, but de-committed when the Bruins’ defensive coordinator, Jeff Ulbrich, left for a job with the Atlanta Falcons. Smith has opted not to sign a binding national letter of intent; he’s signed a financial aid agreement instead. Smith is ranked the No. 5 outside linebacker in the country by 247 Sports’ Composite Rankings. Georgia’s 2015 class ranks No. 9 in the country and No. 5 in the SEC by 247 Sports. The Bulldogs now have 30 commitments in the class.last_img read more

Govt. Establishes Shelter for Victims of Human Trafficking

first_imgThe Government has established a shelter for the care and protection of victims of human trafficking, as part of initiatives to address issues relating to the crime in Jamaica.The shelter, which has been operational since March 2013, can hold up to 10 persons and has been refurbished and furnished at a cost of approximately $3.2 million. The National Task Force Against Trafficking In Persons (NATFATIP) is also seeking to identify other emergency locations in the event of cases involving large number of persons.Addressing a press conference on the Jamaica Trafficking in Persons Report 2012-2013 today (June 20), Chairman ofthe National Task Force Against Trafficking In Personsand Permanent Secretary in the Ministry of Justice, Carol Palmer, noted that the shelter was another critical evaluation point for the government.Mrs. Palmer also informed that there are victims who are currently using the shelter.The Permanent Secretary pointed out that a significant amount of work has been done over the past year to address human trafficking.“We are fully energized to take on this crime frontally and we are aiming for everyone on our shores, be you Jamaican or whatever nationality, to be secure from this crime, because all perpetrators of Trafficking in Persons (TIP) must know that we are coming after you,” she said.Between April 2012 and March 2013, the police conducted some 213 raids in establishments across the island and 23 human trafficking victims were rescued.  There have been seven TIP investigations launched and four arrests made up to March 2013.Mrs. Palmer highlighted a number of cases where persons have been arrested for child trafficking and trafficking in persons, which are now before the courts. In one case of child trafficking, the preliminary hearing for the matter was held on April 11, 2013.She also related a case where a group of 21 male children were rescued from a Honduran fishing vessel intercepted in Jamaican coastal waters by the Jamaica Defence Force (JDF). It was discovered that the children were at risk as they had no identification papers. Through the efforts of OCID and the DPP’s office, the investigations proved there was human trafficking taking place in at least four of the children who were able to give statements.A report was prepared and submitted to the relevant authorities and the children were given assistance by the government of Jamaica, through the Ministry of Justice. They were provided with alternative shelter and meals at a cost of approximately $1 million. The victims were also offered counselling and medical relief and support through the Victim Support Unit of the Ministry of Health.She further informed that the public education efforts have been significantly revved up to increase  public awareness of the crime.CONTACT: ANDREA BRAHAMlast_img read more